Single trait model

Single trait model aims to estimate variance components and its heritability of all random effects for a trait. Always remember that there is no need to adjust the order of individuals or markers to be consistent among different files, HIBLUP can do it automatically. Example command of running SSGLBUP for single trait model:

./hiblup --single-trait
         --pheno demo.phe
         --pheno-pos 8
         --dcovar 2,3       #fixed effect
         --qcovar 4,5       #covariates
         --rand 6,7         #non-genetic (environmental) random effect
         --pedigree demo.ped    #genetic random effect
         --bfile demo           #genetic random effect
         --add --dom 
         --threads 32 
         --out demo 

There are 5 types of algorithms for variance components estimation:
"AI", "EM", "HE", "EMAI", "HI", where "AI" is AIREML,"EM" is EMREML, and "HE" represents HE regression, "HI" is "HE+AI", which uses the outcome of HE regression as the start values of AIREML, users can choose one of them by flag --vc-method, and change the maximum iteration number for AIREML and EMREML by flag --ai-maxit and --em-maxit respectively. For "HE" regression, if covariates for fixed effects are provided, HIBLUP will first regress the phenotype on these, then perform HE Regression using the residuals, the standard error(SE) of HE is computed by Jackknife resampling strategy at 100 repeats.

However, above command maybe time-consuming when fitting trait by trait, as it repeatedly constructs XRM for each trait. We can construct XRM only once at the beginning, then assign it to --xrm when fitting multiple traits, which can give the same results, but would be much more efficient, the command can be referred as following:

# Step 1: construct XRMs
./hiblup --make-xrm
         --pedigree demo.ped
         --bfile demo
         --add --dom
         --out demo

# Step 2: link XRMs to fit model
./hiblup --single-trait 
         --pheno demo.phe 
         --pheno-pos 8 
         --dcovar 2,3 
         --qcovar 4,5 
         --rand 6,7 
         --xrm demo.HA,demo.HD 
         --add --dom 
         --threads 32 
         --out demo 

Several files will be generated in the work directory:
demo.vars: the estimated variance and heritability of all random effects:

	Var	Var_SE	h2	h2_SE
loc	12.2127	8.9109	0.1035	0.0682
dam	10.6268	4.8605	0.0901	0.041
HA	59.2007	11.7641	0.5019	0.0807
HD	28.9946	8.9294	0.2458	0.083
e	6.9232	1.6957	0.0587	0.0161

demo.beta: the estimated coefficients of all covariates and fixed effects:

Levels	Estimation	SE
mu	32.5285	3.4758
sex_F	6.2933	1.7593
sex_M	26.2353	1.7634
season_Autumn	18.0905	0.9753
season_Spring	-1.9168	0.9904
season_Summer	7.8471	1.0066
season_Winter	8.5078	0.9944
day	0.1547	0.0574
bornweight	1.5703	0.4614

demo.anova: analysis of variance table of all covariates and fixed effects:

Factors	Df	SumSq	MeanSq	F	Pr(>F)
sex	1	49710.3845	49710.3845	7180.311	<2e-16
season	3	24515.0941	8171.698	1180.344	<2e-16
day	1	925.3352	925.3352	133.658	<2e-16
bornweight	1	437.3432	437.3432	63.171	1.30E-14
e	493	3413.1141	6.9232		

demo.rand: the estimated environmental random effects, genetic random effects (the column named "PA", "GA", or "HA" is the list of breeding values for phenotypic and non-phenotypic individuals) and residuals.

Users can specify the start values for all unknown variance to --vc-priors for fast convergence, the way of how to input the variance components can be found at here.